About Us

Committed to bringing the latest in neurosciences and staying responsive to the needs of the community, we will soon launch our dream project with a new 100-bedded facility that will bring to the region much needed specialties such as Radiosurgery.

Contact Info

Learning Disorders

Learning disorders are information-processing problems that prevent a person from learning a skill and using it effectively. They may be diagnosed in children who, despite trying hard, still struggle with a specific set of skills over time.

Learning disorders generally affect people of average or above average intelligence. As a result, the disorder appears as a gap between expected skills, based on age and intelligence, and academic performance.

Common learning disorders affect a child’s abilities in reading, written expression, math or nonverbal skills.

Learning disorders in reading (dyslexia) may cause difficulties:

  • Perceiving a spoken word as a combination of distinct sounds
  • Reading at a typical pace
  • Understanding what they read
  • Recalling accurately what they read
  • Making inferences based on their reading
  • Spelling

Problems with working memory, the ability to hold and manipulate information, also can play a role.

Learning disorders in writing (Dysgraphia) 

As writing requires complex visual, motor and information-processing skills, a learning disorder in written expression may cause:

  • Slow and labour-intensive handwriting
  • Handwriting that is hard to read, poorly organized or hard to understand
  • Reversing letters, words, or numbers, after first or second grade
  • Difficulty putting thoughts into writing
  • Trouble with spelling, grammar and punctuation

Learning disorders in maths (Dyscalculia) may cause problems with the following skills:

  • Understanding how numbers work and relate to each other
  • Calculating maths problems
  • Memorizing basic calculations
  • Using maths symbols
  • Understanding word problems
  • Organizing and recording information while solving a maths problem

Learning disorders in nonverbal skills – affect visual-spatial skills, visual-motor skills, and other skills necessary in social or academic functioning.

They may occur in a child who has good basic language skills and strong rote memorization skills but has have trouble with the following:

  • Interpreting facial expressions and nonverbal cues in social interactions
  • Using language appropriately in social situations
  • Physical coordination
  • Fine motor skills, such as writing, cutting or drawing
  • Telling right from left
  • Recognizing patterns or sorting items by size or shape
  • Understanding and following instructions 
  • Remembering what was just said or what was just read
  • Understanding the concept of time
  • Attention, planning and organizing

Many children struggle in school long before being diagnosed. This can affect a child’s self-esteem and motivation and they may act out or withdraw. Learning disorders can also be present with emotional or behavioural disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or anxiety

Prompt recognition of learning problems is crucial, so that specialist help can be sought to reach the correct diagnosis and provide appropriate assistance.

The cause of learning disorders is not clear, but some risk factors have been identified:

  • Family history and genetics
  • Prenatal and neonatal risks, such as exposure to alcohol or drugs before birth, premature birth and very low birthweight 
  • Psychological trauma or abuse in early childhood may affect brain development and increase the risk of learning disorders
  • Head injuries or nervous system infections might play a role in the development of learning disorders
  • Environmental exposure to high levels of toxins, such as lead, has been linked to an increased risk of learning disorders.

A child’s teacher, parents or guardian, doctor, or other professional can request an evaluation if there are concerns about learning problems. 

Sight and hearing tests should be conducted to rule out problems in these areas.

Often, a child will have a series of assessments and tests conducted by a team of professionals, including a psychologist, special education teacher, occupational therapist, social worker or nurse.

A diagnosis of severe anxiety or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders also might be relevant. These conditions can contribute to delays in developing academic skills.

If your child has a learning disorder they may benefit from the following:

  • Extra help with academic, organizational and study skills
  • Individualized education program (IEP) including learning goals and strategies and services to support the child’s learning in school
  • Technologies such as computer applications that support writing or audiobooks to supplement reading
  • Occupational therapy might improve the motor skills of a child who has writing problems. 
  • Speech therapy
  • Medication may be recommended to manage depression, severe anxiety or ADHD


Treatment plans usually evolve over time depending on a child’s progress.

Parents and teachers can help by focusing on a child’s strengths and encouraging them to pursue interests that give him or her confidence.

Our Honorary Partners